SOUNDING THE ABYSS
OLIVEROS’ DEEP LISTENING AND
THE SONIC MEDITATIONS
as Chapter 3 in Women Making Art (New York: Lang, 2000)
to measure deepness by sounding.
calleth unto deep at the noise of thy waterspouts.
to measure deepness by sounding.
calleth unto deep at the noise of thy waterspouts.
Oliveros (b. 1932)
in Houston, Texas, is a composer, performer, humanitarian and an important
pioneer in American music. Acclaimed
internationally, for four decades she has explored sound, forging new ground
for herself and others. Through improvisation, electronic music, ritual,
teaching, and meditation she has created a body of work with such breadth of
vision that it profoundly affects those who experience it and eludes many
who try to write about it.
has been honored with awards, grants, and concerts internationally,
including the SEAMUS (Society for Electro-Acoustic Music in the US) Award
for Lifetime Achievement, 1999; ASCAP
Standard Award, 1982-98; and NEA fellowships in 1990, 1988, and 1984. She
has performed in the world's most prestigious venues, ranging from the John
F. Kennedy Center in Washington D.C. to the studios of the West German
Radio. Through her Deep Listening Pieces and earlier Sonic
Meditations (1971), Oliveros helped introduce the concept of
incorporating all environmental sounds into musical performance. This requires focused concentration, skilled musicianship.
and strong improvisational skills, which are the hallmarks of Oliveros'
She has also provided leadership within the music community from her early years as the first director of the Center for Contemporary Music at Mills College in 1966, to becoming director of the Center for Music Experiment during her fourteen- year tenure as professor of music at the University of California at San Diego, 1967-81. She has served as composer-in-residence at many colleges including Mills College, Oberlin College, and Northwestern University. She has also acted in an advisory capacity for organizations such as the National Endowment for the Arts, the New York State Council for the Arts, and many private foundations.
The 1960s and early 1970s were shaped by the sociocultural
movement sometimes referred to as the "new sensibility."
Among other things, the term reflected the revolutionary spirit of
the time as embodied in the civil rights, antiwar, and women's liberation
movements. In the popular
imagination, it represented hippies, flower children, and free love.
In the arts, it was given voice by people such as Allen Ginsberg,
John Cage, Susan Sontag, and Andy Warhol. It was also quite notable for
explorations of expanded consciousness through new-found uses of meditation,
eastern religions, and psychedelics. The new sensibility was one of the most
important social revolutions in American history and left an indelible
impression on its cultural landscape.
1974, during the final stages of the new sensibility, Pauline Oliveros
published one of the most important works of her career, the seminal Sonic
Meditations. The work broke
radically from the traditions of western music.
Instead of using standard music notation, the composition consisted
of twenty-five Roman-numeraled prose instructions, ranging from one sentence
to a few paragraphs, which presented strategies for listening. The example
below, Sonic Meditation X, illustrates their general character:
in a circle with your eyes closed. Begin
by observing your own breathing. Gradually
form a mental image of one person who is sitting in the circle. Sing a long tone to that person.
Then sing the pitch that person is singing. Change your mental image to another person and repeat until
you have contacted every person in the circle one or more times (score).”
wrote the Meditations while involved in teaching and research at the
University of California, San Diego. To
a certain extent, her involvement with meditation synthesized academic
research with the revolutionary, consciousness-expanding characteristics of
the new sensibility.
hallmark of her work in San Diego was a fascination with long continuous
sounds, such as the drones of motors, fluorescent lights, and freeway noise.
Oliveros discovered that through processes of relaxation, she could
listen more closely to drones, and that relaxation also helped her to gain
insights into the phenomenology of listening itself.
In the spirit of the new sensibility, she became interested in forms
of meditation that increase awareness, such as those used in Buddhism and
T'ai Chi Chuan (Oliveros, Software for People 148). She learned she could apply these forms of meditation to
music making and listening with profound effect.
1970, several other women had joined her (many of whom were not professional
musicians) to form the (“fem”) Ensemble—an all-woman
improvisation group devoted to studying long sustained sounds, both vocal
and instrumental. Oliveros'
phenomenological analysis of listening led her to a special interest in the
involuntary changes that occurred while the Ensemble sustained tones.
Based on her involvement with various forms of meditation, she began
to lead improvisations that encouraged spontaneous, subconscious
transformation through de-emphasizing mental constructs such as
"opinions, desires and speculations" (Oliveros, Software
1973, Oliveros founded the Meditation Project with funding from UCSD made
possible by a Rockefeller grant, and spent nine weeks examining the role of
meditation in music with the help of psychologists, kinesiologists, and
specialists in the martial arts and T'ai Chi Chuan. The Sonic Meditations,
which Oliveros wrote for the (”fem”) Ensemble, were studied as part of
The actual sound making in the Sonic Meditations is
primarily vocal, but sometimes includes hand clapping or other body sounds.
Occasionally, sound-producing objects and instruments are used.
Since many members of the (“fem”) Ensemble were
non-professionals, the approach is radically egalitarian.
Special skills are not required, anyone can participate. The
principle focus is on the cognition of sound. In the second
"Introduction" to the work, Oliveros writes that each Meditation
is a special procedure for the following:
1. Actually making sounds
2. Actively imagining sounds
3. Listening to present sounds
4. Remembering sounds
Through her research, Oliveros concluded that the Sonic
Meditations could produce healing, heightened states of awareness and
expanded consciousness, changes in physiology and psychology, and new forms
of communal relationships ( Sonic Meditations, "Introduction
II"). "In the process
a kind of music occurs naturally," she wrote. "Its beauty is not
through intention, but is intrinsically the effectiveness of its healing
continued this work, and by the 1980s, it led to an aesthetic philosophy she
refers to as Deep Listening, which redefines listening as being an art in
itself. She speaks of hearing
as the "primary sense organ," and has summarized Deep Listening as
Listening is listening in every possible way to everything possible to hear
no matter what you are doing. Such intense listening includes the sounds of
daily life, of nature, or one's own thoughts as well as musical sounds. Deep
Listening represents a heightened state of awareness and connects to all
that there is. As a composer I make my music through Deep Listening"
aesthetic of Deep Listening thus encompasses a very wide, somewhat undefined
area of musical thought and consciousness developed over four decades of
composition and research. In
their practical applications, the forms of Deep Listening embodied in the Sonic
Meditations hint at new types of music making, new concepts of social
order, and new forms of spirituality. As
the New York Times music critic, John Rockwell, has noted, "On some
level, music, sound, consciousness and religion are all one, and she would
seem to be very close to that level" (quoted in Oliveros, Website).
Central Concepts of Deep Listening as Embodied by the Sonic Meditations.
Sonic Meditations can be quite fun to perform. They are often more
intimate than normal chamber music and create unusually intense feelings of
rapport among the participants. They also create a sense of safety and
creative freedom since there is no "right" or "wrong"
way of performing them—the bane of both professional and non-professional
Sonic Meditations embody the concepts of Deep Listening, which
include nonjudgmental perception, the development of empathy through
listening, the creation of nonhierarchical social relationships in music
making, the expanded use of intuitive forms of internal and external
awareness, and new understandings of sensuality and the body.
These practices are fundamental to Oliveros' work, and shape both her
music making and teaching. She
identifies creativity as fundamental to human dignity, and feels that
helping others to be creative is an essential part of the artist's work.
To analyze the Sonic Meditations we will look at their
relationship to some of the central components of Deep Listening.
Listening cultivates forms of perception unhindered by preconceptions.
One of the Deep Listener's goals is to listen to each and every sound
exactly for what it is, nothing more, nothing less.
The Sonic Meditations thus focus our attention on how
listening is an act of cognition that can "filter" or shape
auditory perception. This is illustrated in “Sonic Meditation XXII,”
which asks the practitioners to think of a familiar sound, listen to it
mentally, and notice how it affects them differently in various imagined
practicing these forms of consciously mitigated listening, one learns to
remove cognitive filters in order to experience deeper forms of audition.
This form of "nonjudgmental perception" was first
introduced to western art music in the 1950s by John Cage, who appropriated
it from Zen Buddhism. Oliveros' first contact with Zen came in the 1960s,
and she remains a practicing Tibetan Buddhist.
the Deep Listener's discernment moves toward this form of nonjudgmental
perception, he or she gains a particular form of dispassionate objectivity.
This, in turn, renders a unique kind of freedom and detachment which
gives works of art their most profound meaning.
and Focal Listening.
and focal listening are forms of attention Oliveros employs in Deep
Listening to increase awareness of the external and internal worlds, and of
the cognitive processes that shape their relationship. These forms of
listening are among the most important components of the Sonic
“Meditation XIII,” for example, the practitioner is asked to form all
the sounds of her environment into a drone, and then to include internal
sounds such as blood pressure and heart beat.
In effect, we listen to listening. We learn how listening is a form
of conditioned discernment with profound cultural and existential
Global listening helps us learn that all other forms of
sensation are essentially directional, even smell, but that listening is
innately spherical. We thus
associate listening with the all-encompassing, the universal, even the
transcendent. Through such reflection, we discover that it is only through
cognitive processes of listening that we give hearing a "sense" of
and focal listening meditations also make us conscious of our extraordinary
ability to filter sounds, as when we are in a room full of noise and focus
in on one person's voice. The ability to create "silence"
selectively by focusing our listening is one of the greatest miracles of
also see that focal listening is a form of global listening, since there is
an infinitude of detail in every sound.
One of the greatest mysteries of nature and human perception is that
the infinitude of the microcosmic comes full circle and weds itself as a
mirror of the macrocosmic. Why do the structures of the atomic world bear a resemblance
to the galactic world? Why do
ice crystals bear literal structural relationships to the erosion of coast
lines? Why do the swirls in the
little creek outside have the same form as this galaxy?
How does an infinitesimal helix of DNA contain the entirety of human
evolution? One thinks of the
words of Lewis F. Richardson:
Big whorls have little whorls
Which feed on their velocity,
And little whorls have lesser whorls
And so on to viscosity. (Gleick 119)
meditation on global and focal listening, we sense a unity in multiplicity
that raises human folly above our finite and conditioned existence.
Mind and Nature reach for each other.
It is the infinite in the infinitesimal and the global in the focal
that allows our finite religious beliefs and art works to touch the
unfathomable. Listen to the
infinite details of one sound while listening to the infinite world of sound
surrounding you. A mysterious form
of unity begins to exist. It
can be called beauty.
Indeterminacy and the
Sonic Meditations illustrate that Oliveros' focus is wider than
musical; it attempts to embrace life as a whole.
Deep Listening thus includes our entire sonic environment as part of
artistic experience. Oliveros refers to this as the "witness/universe
the environment is by nature unpredictable, Oliveros' music is
indeterminate—that is, it is affected by elements of chance.
In the 1950s, the American composer John Cage developed an
elaborate aesthetic based on indeterminacy. His work led musicians to focus
more closely on the physiological and psychological processes of musical
reception, and how they are changed by the infinite permutations of our
human existence. Musicians
began to regard the audience as actively engaged in the process of creative
listening, as opposed to the passive act of hearing.
This is revealed in Oliveros’ “Sonic Meditation VI” which asks
the listener to observe the random variations of sound in white noise.
Oliveros' work is centered on this new-found meaning of listening as
a creative act in an unpredictable world.
Deep Listening focuses on our auditory environment and the processes of
cognition that shape our perception of it, every new performance of the Sonic
Meditations must be discerned anew, based on a multitude of factors in a
state of constant transition and change. This same principle also defines
the way we listen to life as a whole. Oliveros
moves us away from thinking of music in terms of an idealized aesthetic
object in the form of a composition, to an understanding of music as a
process of creative cognition in an ever-changing, unfathomable world.
We leave behind concepts of artistic experience as a given set of
aesthetic principles, concepts, rules, perceptions, or critical evaluations,
and move toward artistic experience as something intangible, something
constantly transforming in time, something that can be
listened to but never fully defined.
Egalitarian Leveling of Status in Musical Relationships.
Deep Listening focuses on listening itself as a creative act, it diminishes
the hierarchies between the composer, performer, and audience. Each person
who does the Sonic Meditations simultaneously fills the roles of
creator, performer, and audience. This
differs from the patriarchal traditions of western music, which emphasize
the aesthetic ideology of the composer as a "lone, transcendentally
inspired genius" who is regarded as the musical creator, while
performers are considered his instruments and the public a relatively
passive receptor (Osborne: See:
removal of hierarchical relationships encourages the development of
community based on the interaction of every individual empathically
listening deeply to the collective—as illustrated by “Sonic Meditation
X” (quoted in full at the beginning of this chapter.) It also leads to an
emphasis on music making through improvisation and meditation, forms that
characterize the Sonic Meditations. Deep Listeners feel these egalitarian concepts represent
a new form of human dignity and community.
As the Cultivation of Empathy and Compassion.
Listening seeks to develop empathy and compassion through listening, and
this is a central focus of the Sonic Meditations.
Once again, this reflects the discipline's Buddhist influences,
and is related to the philosophy of brahmavihara.
Brahmavihara represents the "four noble practices"
through which humans can obtain subsequent "rebirth" in the
Brahman heaven. The four
practices ("apramanas") represent the perfection of:
1. Sympathy, which gives happiness to all living beings
2. Compassion, which removes pain from living beings
3. Joy, the enjoyment of the sight of others who have attained
4. Equanimity, being free from attachment to everything
Oliveros views creativity as fundamental to human dignity, she expands the
role of the artist, assigning to her the specific function of helping others
to be creative—a goal central to the Sonic Meditations.
The Deep Listener's renunciation of the artist's solitary,
"transcendental" expression (and its special status) in favor of
aiding the creativity of others, is specifically related to the second
element of brahmavihara, which is compassion.
The ultimate expression of compassion in Buddhist thought is embodied
by the "bodhisattva," who postpones his or her entry into
"Nirvana" to work for the "salvation" of others.
even if the goals of most Deep Listeners are considerably less grandiose
than a quest for "enlightenment," they nevertheless create works
or processes which allow both the artist and audience to reach for creative
(or possibly transcendental) experience together as a community.
Sympathy, compassion, and joy at the sight of happiness in others
formulate works of art which help the performer/audience achieve creative
is also reflected in the empathic forms of communication that are a central
focus of Deep Listening. This
is illustrated by “Sonic Meditation XV,” entitled Zina's Circle, which
cultivates deep forms of empathic awareness between the participants through
ritualistic forms of hand contact and chant.
Music, for the Deep Listener, is a form of empathy that creates
authentic community. This empathy is based as much on the creative
power of the listener/audience as on the composer or performer.
Development of New Modes of Awareness.
Listening attempts to create, expand, and deepen new or overlooked modes of
awareness. This ideal is
illustrated in “Sonic Meditation III” which experiments with forms of
Listeners also expand their awareness by developing their sense of
kinesthesia through training in Tai Chi and yoga. Kinesthesia is a sense
mediated by nerves that lie in the muscles, tendons and joints. Our
kinesthetic sense is stimulated by bodily movements and tensions, and gives
us awareness of our body's presence. Since
kinesthesia allows us to refine movement deeply, its mastery is important to
most forms of artistic expression, such as musical performance, dance,
sculpting and painting.
Deep Listener, the cellist and composer Anne Bourne, plumbs the depths of
what might be referred to as "meta-kinesthesia." She describes this as a form of "discernment" which
allows her to "find distinction within the dense sonic chaos" of
existence, a spherical awareness without spatial limitation "open to
the cosmos and beyond," a form of sensation without a "literal
affirmation in meaning" (e-mail to author, 15 April 1999).
This same sense of metakinesthesia might be reflected in "Sonic
Meditation V", which suggests walking at night so silently "that
the bottoms of your feet become ears." (score).
new modes of awareness are some of the speculative doors of perception opened
by Deep Listening. top
Desire of the Unfathomable.
feels that the forms of meditation and improvisation used in Deep Listening
allow one to create music with a complexity difficult for notated music to
achieve. It is the undefinable
in music, the desire to touch the unfathomable, that distinguishes the
trio, the Deep Listening Band, which includes the trombonist, Stuart
Dempster, and the electronics specialist, David Gamper, is devoted to the
exploration of these undefinable regions of music.
Since their music is made "by ear," it freely creates
nuances of rhythm, timbre, pitch, and inflection which cannot be captured by
any known system of notation. Even
though we can discern the profundity of this music, its exquisite
discernment remains unfathomable by its nature.
The music maintains an extraordinary clarity, logic, precision and
originality to the discerning ear, even though it is for the most part
beyond analysis or definition (Deep Listening Band, Suspended Music).
These same qualities can be achieved through the Sonic
capacity to discern the unfathomable brings into being many aspects of human
consciousness that would otherwise not exist, such as artistic and religious
experience, as well as the capacity to experience the irrational aspects of
our human psyche, such as dreams and emotions.
Jungian forms of dream analysis, conducted by Oliveros' collaborator,
the psychotherapist Carole Ione, are thus an important part of the training
in Deep Listening retreats (Ione). These
techniques of Deep Listening have allowed the composer Norman Lowrey to make
dream-consciousness a central part of his work. Using his dreams as a
reference, he meticulously recreates global sonic environments as part of
rituals using highly poetic texts and astonishingly beautiful masks to make
profound commentaries on society’s relationship to its natural environment
(Lowrey website). His works
help us gain a deeper respect for the many levels of human consciousness and
the insights they can provide. Through discernment, the witness/artist is
able to feel and channel the unfathomability of life,
and this is a central focus in Deep Listening.
Understanding of Folly as Central to Artistic Experience.
of the most unusual aspects of Deep Listening is the element of folly that
is part of its practices, a form of radical playfulness that Oliveros feels
is essential to fostering creative expression. This explains why some of the
Sonic Meditations involve the participants in seemingly ridiculous
acts, such as engaging in mental telepathy with aliens (number IV), or why
orchestra musicians are dispersed in row boats on a lake (number VIII).
definition, folly is an act or instance of foolishness, an undertaking
having an absurd or ruinous outcome. Folly
can also be a perilously or criminally foolish action, associated with evil,
wickedness, lewdness, or lasciviousness.
There is also a performance genre referred to as follies, an
elaborate theatrical revue consisting of music, dance, and skits.
in its best sense is related to folly, an undertaking that is seemingly
absurd and foolish, something that allows us momentarily to break out of the
controlling and stultifying paradigms of our social and cultural
conditioning. (That is also why
it is sometimes called criminal, evil, and
lascivious.) One of the
values of Deep Listening is folly, the way it leads us to listen with
abandon, to transcend the deafness of cultural conditioning. It moves us
beyond such constructs as "logical" discourse, rationality, and
traditional music. In a sense,
Oliveros takes us on a date to the biggest show on earth, The Follies of
Life, the three-ring circus of sound.
forms of folly and playfulness inherent in Deep Listening are not new to
cultural history. We see that
what begins as fatuous, gradually becomes the new paradigm we live by, the
powdered wigs, the fox trots, or the Cadillacs with big sputnik fins. Then
by the same path of rivers within rivers, cultural paradigms (follies)
return to their fatuous status, this time as outdated. What, for example, is
more "folliful" than Gothic cathedrals?
We look at the infinitude of gargoyles, saints, Popes, and angels and
acknowledge not so much God as the folly of the human spirit.
Righteousness is temporal, but folly is eternal.
History is a kind of chronicle of human delusions.
folly has always shaped the history of music as well.
Sixteenth century Italians, for example, decided to rub horse tail
hairs over cat intestines stretched taut over poorly varnished pine boxes to
make music using a tonality created by a harmony of spheres revolving around
the earth like a big, godly clockwork.
One of the most ironic paradoxes of being is that our lives are given
deep meaning by the sheer folly of our existence.
Folly is part of the preciousness of life, and this leads to the
humanism of Deep Listening: it celebrates the folly of
life and being.
Critical Assessment: Discerning the Ironic Separation of Interpretation
kind of feminism, however, is often objected to as essentialist.
Essentialism is a form of biological reductionism that defines
certain kinds of behavior as "natural" to specific genders, races,
or cultures. Racists, for
example, might have an essentialist belief that a certain group is
biologically disposed toward criminality.
Sexists might code certain behavior, such as intuition, as innately
feminine, while coding logic as masculine and superior.
Cultural feminism, which also codes behavior according to gender,
could thus be ironically turned around by patriarchy to reaffirm and
consolidate its oppression of women (Przybylowicz 259). This does not change
the fact, however, that Oliveros' work makes many important responses to the
monolithic cultural paradigm of patriarchy.
The ironic essentialisation of her work comes more from limited
interpretive theories than from her beliefs and compositions themselves.
such irony derives from western culture's tendency to essentialize gender by
categorizing "doing" as masculine and "being" as
feminine. Traditionally, we
esteem men for what they accomplish in life, and women only by the nature of
their being, such as their grace, charm and beauty.
If Deep Listening were to be theorized as feminine, it, too, would
follow a similar essentializing pattern, since it focuses on profound
concepts of being, and de-emphasizes music as a "virtuosic" form
of doing. This essentializing
irony, however, stems from a reductive interpretive theory rather than from
the practice itself. Deep
Listening reveals that being and doing are fundamental parts of all human
behavior, and that the well-integrated personality balances both
“feminine” and “masculine” characteristics simultaneously.
illustrates why Oliveros is not always comfortable with reductive
categorizations of her work as "feminine," although its feminism
seems very important. In 1970, she published an article in the New York Times which
strongly rejected the label of "lady composer," a demeaning slang
term still common at the time. The
article was not an attack on the masculine, but rather an attempt to end
terminology that leads to biased, unbalanced views. Discussions of the identity of women who compose, and the
confusing terms used to describe them, are still an important part of her
classes at Mills College thirty years later.
She has also consistently stood for the rights of lesbians, even from
the early 1960s when such stances were still quite uncommon.
though Oliveros is strongly aware of the feminist elements in her work, she
notes that her goal has not been so much social opposition, as the
manifestation of her inner identity:
didn't mean to oppose the mainstream so much as to express the inner values
that I have and that I feel have to come from the inside, rather than taking
the imposition of structures from the outside which tend to support what's
going on inside. And I'm
looking not necessarily to oppose or overthrow but to balance out, and come
to a different understanding of what can be done.” (Taylor 392)
the ironies of an overly reductive interpretation would be apparent.
Her life and work take a more feminist stance than that of any other
major composer, yet her goal was not to "oppose", but to
"balance out." Her
desire was "to come to a different understanding of what can be
done," and she did this by remaining true to what "comes from
inside." By holding to her own personal vision, she has made a
profound contribution to the identity and autonomy of women in culture and
an article entitled "Breaking the Silence" written for a music
festival in Cologne, Germany in 1998, she referred to this rebalancing as a
healing of society:
created by women could have a special function...for healing separations
that cloud the spirit of humanity. ...Music cannot go on as a lopsided
affair belonging only to men. As
music changes so will the world as we know it.
We need a balanced society with equal representation for both women
and men and support for all composers and musicians" (Website).
the same article, she includes recommendations for creating a balance that
would "break the silence and change the paradigm of [male]
exclusiveness in music” (23). These would include:
the performance of music by women.
teaching materials written by women.
the lives of women and writing their history.
journalists to write about the music of women.
a list of women who create music in your community or city.
to music by women and commissioning them.
organizations that support women who are musicians.
also stresses that composers should emphasize community building over career
building, and question their relationship to the forms of music they are
writing. "Are you
listening," she asks, "to your own inner voice and answering its
call? Are you expressing what you need to express, or what you have
been taught to express by the canon of men's musical establishment?"
statements illustrate that to theorize her stance solely in terms of
opposition would be too simple. As
she has noted, her ultimate goal is not merely opposition and activism, but
also the realization of balance and inner-identity. These ironic tensions
between intention and effect, or between reductive interpretive theories and
actual practice, make it difficult to analyze the aesthetic concepts of Deep
Listening and the Sonic Meditations. On the one hand, Oliveros
advocates radical egalitarianism, but some of Deep Listening's proponents
almost place her on a pedestal. This
results in a mild personality cult surrounding her with something of a
spiritual aura. She is quite down-to-earth in her human relationships,
advocating a form of music making that requires no special abilities, and
yet she occupies, and perhaps even cultivates, a position in society similar
to the "artist-prophets" of western patriarchal traditions.
Due to changing historical contexts and the essentializing
characteristics of cultural feminism—which theorizes only certain behavior
as ideologically true—ironies abound.
The lives and work of women who are artists can seldom be explained
by theory alone.
theoretical ironies also affect the concept of compassion in music making.
In society as a whole, notions of compassion are often dispensed from
the privileged position of the "enlightened" and imply a system of
power and authority that is anything but egalitarian or compassionate.
Far from being a "feminist" leveling of hierarchies, the political
concept of compassion might represent overtones of patriarchal
"forgiveness" in which the "penitent" pays a heavy price
in loss of status. In the
actual practices of Deep Listening, which are almost impossible to capture
with theory, these ironies are resolved.
between intention and effect also influence the notion of nonjudgmental
perception—the first component of Deep Listening discussed in this
article. Perception and judgment are so deeply interconnected in the human
mind that we have no proof they can be separated.
The forms of perception that presumably move us beyond judgment
cannot be revealed through language, since, as first postulated by the
French postmodernists, language itself is a morass of implicit values.
"Enlightenment," for lack of a better word, is beyond words,
methodologies, and rationality. It
is beyond the status quo, and it is beyond rejecting the status quo, since
both are implicit judgments. There is thus an ironic danger for those
striving toward the "suspension of judgment," because the
perception of a presumed absolute reality might just be another form of
irony affected John Cage's ideal of nonjudgmental perception, which did not
emancipate auditory perception to the extent its proponents claimed.
Instead, it channeled listening toward a rarified modernist
aesthetic. Cage's formulation of nonjudgmentalism in the 1950s divided the
new music world into two opposing factions, which came to be labeled
according to their geographic centers in Manhattan: the "Uptown"
(which was against Cage), and "Downtown" (which was for him).
aesthetic encampments are the stomping grounds of orthodoxy, and ironically,
nonjudgmentalism thus became a stylistic ideology whose foil was the equally
stubborn and closed Uptown. If the Downtowners had really suspended
judgment, they would not have been inclined to wall themselves into highly
specialized, dualistic modernist ideologies, and the closed co-dependent
professional networks it took to support them.
The aesthetic of nonjudgmentalism became a cognitive filter in
itself—an ideal that often made its proponents quite opinionated about
which new music was "best." Such
forms of ideologically deafened elitism were a hallmark of modernism.
Once again, in the discerning practices of Deep Listening, these
ironies are resolved.
some respects, the postmodernists have been more successful in freeing
listening—at least in regard to style.
By employing methods of analysis developed during the 1970s by
psychologists such as Jacques Lacan, and literary critics such as Jacques
Derrida and Michel Foucault, the postmodernists challenged the authority of
knowledge, and thus the ideologies that place evaluations on stylistic
differences in music. Through increasing our awareness of the modalities of
cultural conditioning and how it arbitrarily shapes our concepts of
"truth" (and thus aesthetic belief), postmodern thought has helped
us develop a wider appreciation for musical styles crossing cultural,
gender, and high-brow/low-brow dichotomies (Jencks 11-12).
order to keep pace with these changes, Oliveros and other proponents of Deep
Listening will need to strengthen and clarify its theoretical foundations.
This will help Deep Listening's value in musical practice and education
become apparent to a wider spectrum of musicians.
It will expand Deep Listening's influence, and enable it to more
successfully fulfill its mission of nurturing creativity by taking the
preconceptions out of listening.
Deep Listening continues to evolve in these ways, it might eventually
provide useful additions to postmodern thought.
It offers, for example, a form of authenticity lacking in
postmodernism's almost nihilistic landscape of non-commitment.
A central part of postmodern aesthetics is based on a distanced
assemblage of cultural artifacts, an "irrealistic constructionism,"
an ironic "carnivalisation" of experience (Hassan 196-198).
Some typical examples in music range from John Zorn's collaging of
spaghetti western sound tracks to Michael Dougherty's symphonic works
alluding to comic book heroes. The
artifacts used by postmodernists often have an exaggerated quality, a tone
of bombast, artificiality or distortion that leads us look at the nature of
culture, often with a subtle tone of ridicule. Postmodernism is often
characterized by this ironic distancing, this element of intentional
inauthenticity and noncommitment.
stands in contrast to the forms of quietude and authenticity represented by
the Sonic Meditations and Deep Listening.
Their humanistic ideals seem to be part of an earlier time.
In 1975, one year after the Sonic Meditations were published,
the historian Gordon Wright declared, "Our
search for truth ought to be quite consciously suffused by a commitment to
some deeply held humane values" (in Himmelfarb 141). Such views no longer seem fashionable. As Wright's colleague, Gertrude Himmelfarb, recently
commented, "In 1975. . . it was still possible to speak respectfully of
the search for truth-and, indeed, to speak of truth without the ironic use
of quotations marks” (Himmelfarb 141).
And so one might ask, what are the Sonic Meditations in the
light of postmodernism? What
are these studies of authentic "being" in a landscape of
noncommitment? What is Deep
Listening in a world where truth is equated with coded cultural bias?
its gentle, self-reflective way, Deep Listening might offer some responses.
Through its examination of cognitive processes, Deep Listening
illustrates that artistic experience is not only the evaluation of objects,
but also complex self-reflective evaluations of ourselves as the perceiver.
The forms of discernment characteristic of Deep Listening thus bring
self-awareness and phenomenological analysis into the creative process
similar to postmodernism's concepts of "deconstruction."
trying to make something out that is at first difficult to perceive,
discernment continually reevaluates and reshapes its own processes of
perception until it is convinced of the validity of its observations.
Discernment is thus innately self-reflective; it constantly reevaluates the
modalities of the cognitive process as a whole.
This self-reflective evaluation formulates the witness/universe
relationships of Deep Listening, and thus, the identities of Deep Listeners
as artists. Deep Listening dissolves subject/object dichotomies into a
process of transformation and growth which allows Mind and Nature to reach
for each other. Deep
Listening's self-reflective discernment thus seems to show how we might move
toward an authenticity and truth that are something more than culturally
from a larger speculative overview, Deep Listening's movement toward the
unification of subject/object dichotomies is part of a newly evolving
cultural paradigm with profound implications for a transformation of western
society. The subject/object
dichotomy of idealistic, patriarchal transcendentalism, with its concept of
the cultural-hero-as-redeemer, is being replaced with a holistic and
participatory view of Mind and Nature (Bateson, Skolimowski, Tarnus) which
balances the feminine and masculine in a sort of sacred marriage.
This seems closely related to Oliveros' statement that the goal of
her work is to "balance out, and come to a different understanding
of what can be done." This
balancing is created by the self-reflective discernment and empathic
resonance of Deep Listening. They
are new unifying or connective modalities of perception that rebalance our
obsessively dualistic, patriarchal culture.
to its historical implications, the importance of this new paradigm is
clear. After the horrors of the
twentieth century—such as the Holocaust and the post-nuclear Cold
War—western culture has become aware that its dualistic values contain
elements that are inherently genocidal.
On the most archetypal and metaphorical level, it seems to have
something to do with the cultural-hero-as-redeemer wanting to annihilate all
other patriarchs so that only "His" genes remain—the alpha-male
as mass murderer. This dark
view lends a certain absurdity and ignominy to human life and cultural
expression, when we sense, for example, that the mass graves of the
Holocaust and the music of Beethoven are both "fathered" by
patriarchy, and are so intermingled in a common ground of cultural
manifestations, that no matter how hard we try, they cannot be sifted apart.
Listening responds to this darkness by breaking down the paradigm of
subject/object dichotomies and providing new ways of sounding the abyss of
otherness. The openness of its nonjudgmental perception, its development of
empathy, its creation of nonhierarchical social relationships, its expanded
use of intuitive forms of awareness, and its new understanding of sensuality
and the body, are all forms of consciousness bringing a new balance and
vibrancy to western culture—something like, if you will, a prophetic
foreshadowing of the return of the Goddess.
Deep Listening thus represents a sacred marriage of Mind and Nature
in which the feminine and masculine elements of human identity are united.
Perhaps this "Sacred Marriage" and its implicit
emancipation of "womanity" is a promise that is our hope.
Gregory. Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity. New York: E. P. Dutton,
John. Silence. Middletown, CT: The Wesleyan University Press, 1961.
Chung-yuan. Creativity and Taoism: A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art,
and Poetry. New York:
Julian Press, 1963.
Listening Band. Suspended Music. Periplum, 1997.
Jacques. Of Grammatology, G. Spivak, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1976.
Alice. "The New Feminism of Yin and Yang." Powers of
Desire: the Politics of Sexuality.
Ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson.
New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983. 439-459.
Jacques. Power and Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings.
G. Gordon, ed., New York, 1977.
James. Chaos: Making A New Science. Viking Penguin, 1987.
Ihab. "Pluralism in Postmodern Perspective." The Postmodern
Reader. Ed. Charles Jencks. London: Academy Editions, 1992.
Eugen. Zen in the Art of Archery. Trans. R.F.C. Hull. New York:
Vintage Books, 1971.
Gertrude. On Looking into the Abyss: Untimely Thoughts on Culture and
Society. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
Carole. Is This a Dream?: A
Handbook for Deep Dreamers. Kingston, New York: M.O.M.
Charles, "The Postmodern Agenda." In The Postmodern Reader.
Ed. Charles Jencks, London: Academy Editions, 1992.
Jacques. Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis. A. Wilden, trans.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.
Norman. Singing Masks: Spirit of Dream Time. Aug. 11, 1999.
Pauline. "And Don't Call Them 'Lady' Composers." New York Times
13 Sept. 1970. II: 29.
Deep Listening Pieces. Kingston: Deep Listening Publications, 1990.
Pauline Oliveros Web Page. 30 July 1999.
Software for People. Baltimore: Smith Publications, 1984.
Sonic Meditations. Baltimore: Smith Publications, 1974.
William. "Symphony Orchestras and Artist-Prophets: Cultural Isomorphism
and the Allocation of Power in Music." Leonardo Music Journal
9 (1999): 69-76.
Donna. "Toward a Feminist Cultural Criticism: Hegemony and Modes of
Social Division." Cultural Critique 14 (1989-90): 259-301.
Henryk. The Participatory Mind: A New Theory of Knowledge and of the
Universe. London: Penguin, 1994.
D.T.. Zen Buddhism. Garden City: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956.
Timothy. "The Gendered Construction of the Musical Self: The
Music of Pauline
Oliveros." The Musical Quarterly. 177:3 (Fall 1993):
Richard. The Passion of the Western Mind.
New York: Ballantine Books, 1991.