Is Just an Excuse
Bias in International Orchestras
published in the October 1996 issue of the IAWM Journal, pp. 6-14.
Recent studies in musicology have suggested that numerous forms of gender bias are represented in the compositions and theories of western music, and they have demonstrated how these biases can be interpreted as metaphors of patriarchy. In this article we will consider the gender bias of international orchestras, which is anything but metaphorical. It is a real social phenomenon, deeply and directly hurtful to the lives of many women. They are often drastically under-represented in major orchestras, and in some cases categorically denied membership entirely, soley based on their gender. And even after obtaining an orchestra position, women often work in an atmosphere of exclusion and intimidation, where their chances of promotion and self-expression are greatly reduced. These problems exist because many international orchestras believe that gender and ethnic uniformity produce aesthetic superiority. They thus provide striking source material, and interesting proving grounds for gender in music theories.
To contextualize the comparison of orchestras, it should noted that women are less present in the European work force than in the United States, especially in the higher management and executive positions which are comparable to positions in top orchestras. European women make up 41% of the work force, and only 1% of corporate executive boards, while in the United States women account for half the work force and 10% of the board seats. In Britain, which is considered Europe´s most positive environment for working women, 41% of the 100 largest companies have a woman board member, compared to 95% of the 100 largest U.S. companies.[i] Comparative employment statistics in top European and U.S. orchestras follow similar patterns.
In a cross-national study, the gender researchers Allmendinger and Hackman have established percentages for the representation of women in orchestras in four countries: 36% for the USA; 30% for the United Kingdom, and 16% for both East and West Germany.[ii] They also found that women were concentrated in lower paid orchestras, and that they are notably less present in major orchestras. Far from leading the way, gender integration in orchestras is lagging behind the progress being made in the rest of society.
These social forces allow some of Europe´s most preeminent musical institutions to categorically forbid membership to women. One is the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, which openly states that ethnic and gender uniformity gives them aesthetic superiority. They are an excellent case study, because the prevailing gender culture of Austria registers little protest to their views, and they can discuss their sexist ideology with staggering candor.
This is illustrated in a West German State Radio interview, which was broadcast on February 13, 1996.[iii] Among the participants were Roland Goettler, a Viennese sociologist specializing in the study of isocratic social groups, and three members of the Vienna Philharmonic: Helmut Zaertner, a 2nd violinist ; Wolfgang Schuster, a percussionist; and Dieter Flurie, a principal flutist.
The participants began by discussing the priority of musical
results over all other concerns, the orchestra´s quest for international
superiority, and the view that music has gender defined qualities which
can be most clearly expressed by male uniformity:
"There is one common fight in the field, a battle cry, so to
speak, and that is 'artistic quality'.
One wants to have music of top quality and sell it in the world.
All other interests, including private interests, are of less
"Music is something special.
It is a special deep knowledge, it has something to do with magic.
I think many men´s groups are to be understood in this way.
They carry secrets that are involved with music and tones, just
like in Australian aboriginal or Indian cultures where men play certain
instruments, and not the women."
In addition to gender, they believe the qualities of their music
are ethnically determined, and represent a national expression.
This view is common in international orchestras, and to some extent
is also expected by their patrons:
"What I have noticed that is interesting, is that the Vienna
Philharmonic would also never take a Japanese or such.
If they took one, this also would somehow by appearances put in
question the noble character of Viennese culture.
But this is not racist!"
"From the beginning we have spoken of the special Viennese
qualities, of the way music is made here.
The way we make music here is not only a technical ability, but
also something that has a lot to do with the soul.
The soul does not let itself be separated from the cultural roots
that we have here in central Europe.
And it also doesn´t allow itself to be separated from
Flurie: "So if one thinks that the world
should function by quota regulations, then it is naturally irritating that
we are a group of white skinned male musicians, that perform exclusively
the music of white skinned male composers.
It is a racist and sexist irritation.
I believe one must put it that way.
If one establishes superficial egalitarianism, one will lose
something very significant. Therefore,
I am convinced that it is worthwhile to accept this racist and sexist
irritation, because something produced by a superficial understanding of
human rights would not have the same standards."
The view is that a uniform membership of male central Europeans
produces the highest artistic standards.
The Vienna Philharmonic thus suggests that the
"irritations" they cause by excluding women, and men of other
races, can be outside of "superficial" social norms, even though
the orchestra is highly regarded and a mainstay of the recording industry.
Zaertner asserts that the sound of the Vienna Philharmonic has been
scientifically analyzed, and is different from any other orchestra.[iv] Flurie suggests a possible explanation which he also
attributes to "the soul":
can probably not find any technical explanation.
The explanation in all probability--and this is my very personal
opinion--is in what my two other colleagues have already mentioned: the
sensibility--for whatever reason it has developed--is oriented to
transmute the significant in music, namely, to transport life
In regard to this "life energy", they were specifically
asked how they would react if women were allowed into the orchestra:
"It would absolutely not be a shock, no surprise, absolutely
not. The only consideration
is whether an established structure already existing as a unified whole,
should be frivolously tossed overboard."
truthfully said, I wouldn´t be indifferent.
I would have an uneasy feeling in the situation.
And that is because we would be gambling with the emotional unity
Geschlossenheit) that this organism currently has.
My worry is that it would be a step that could never be taken
They view the male "soul" of the orchestra as a fragile
organism, subject to infection or defilement, and even possible death by
the inclusion of women. And
yet the regenerative ideas of maternity, sexual attraction, and female
creativity would disturb uniformity:
"Pregnancy brings problems.
It brings disorder. Another
important argument against women is that they can bring the solidarity of
the men in question. You find
that in all men´s groups."
"And the women can also contribute to
creating competition among the men. They
distract men. Not the older
women. No one gives a damn
about the older ones. It is
the younger ones. The older
women are already clever, they run to you!
But the 20 or 25 year olds...
They would be the problem. These are the considerations.
In a monastery it is the same.
The alter is a holy area, and the other gender may not enter it,
because it would cause disorder. Such
are the opinions."
These fears of women, maternity, female sexuality, and the
contaminated altar are found in numerous cultures, and deeply influence
their art and religious expressions.
In Europe such fears contributed to the exclusion of women from
both liturgical and secular music, and led to some of western music´s
most unusual practices, such as the castrati.
The harp has traditionally been the only instrument acceptable for
women in orchestras, since its ethereal qualities are considered
Although the two women harpists mentioned below have performed with the orchestra for years, they do not have regular contracts.[vi]
They specifically illustrate the effect of gender on perceived
"We have a male harpist, and two ladies. If you ask how noticeable the gender is with these
colleagues, my personal experience is that this instrument is so far at
the edge of the orchestra that it doesn´t disturb our emotional unity,
the unity I would strongly feel, for example, when the orchestra starts
really cooking with a Mahler Symphony.
There I sense very strongly and simply that only men sit around me. And as I said, I would not want to gamble with this
As in the rituals of many cultures, women must be kept on the
periphery, like the harpist who might keep the men from
Goettler notes that if women are allowed educations, they should be given
professional opportunities. In
fact, over half the conservatory graduates in Austria are women:
"In today´s situation, occupational groups such as
professional musicians, must open themselves up, because there exists a
wonderful and large offering of women musicians who want to offer their
services. Earlier they didn´t
have free entrance to the universities and conservatories.
But if women are allowed to enter universities, and if they can
develop high artistic ability, then they must be let into orchestras.
I can understand that. Indeed.
It is just that from the men´s perspective art is fun.
It´s fun, it´s all about fun.
It´s not just about art. That´s
just an excuse."
Since they can speak freely, the Vienna Philharmonic gives us a
candid illustration of the attitudes about women that exist in many
international orchestras. Creativity
is presumed to be interconnected with sexuality, and that bit of
"fun" is what orchestras seem to fear most.
Men presumably have a unique form of musical expression, and its
aesthetic is diluted by the inclusion of women.
And since the orchestra represents a national expression, ethnic
uniformity is also essential.
In February of 1996 reports about the Vienna Philharmonic began
appearing on the internet, and an international group of
scholars and musicians (both male and female), sent a letter to the
orchestra inquiring about their employment policies.
The Philharmonic answered on April 19, 1996, referring to their
opponents as "militant feminists who are more interested in equal
rights than artistic efficacy".[vii]
They attributed their exclusion of women to Europe´s liberal maternity leave regulations, and argued that 25% of their members would be pregnant each season, which seems highly unlikely. Especially in light of the ideologies cited above, the maternity argument is open to question.[viii]
Many top orchestras share the Vienna Philharmonic´s ethnic and
gender ideologies. Prague,
for example, has a long history as the "Second Capital" of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, and not surprisingly one of its resident
orchestras, the Czech Philharmonic, also
categorically excludes women. It
is also a cherished national icon, and is considered to have defended the
country from both German and Russian cultural hegemony.
The Berlin Philharmonic is a national icon as well, and it also has
a history of gender discrimination. In
a German State Television interview in 1978, orchestra member Willi Maas,
spoke about the possible entry of women into the orchestra:
"Close to 5000 people sit there.
It sounds exaggerated if I say: 'Then the conductor enters.'
It is not that we have anxiety.
But every effort is required.
These are things that require a masculine composure.
I cannot have any concerns about who sits next to me..."[ix]
Five years later, these seating concerns were brought to life by
the clarinetist Sabine Meyer, who became the first woman to enter the
orchestra, and only through the intervention of General Music Director
Herbert von Karajan. In spite
of their "masculine composure", the orchestra exploded into
turmoil, and after nine months she left.
conflict also ended Karajan´s 40 year relationship with the orchestra.
Meyer suffered extreme harassment, such as seating herself at
rehearsals only to have the men slide their chairs away from her.
Their "emotional unity" was disturbed.
The German musician´s union supported the orchestra, noting the
all male ensemble had the "democratic right" to choose who it
It is now thirteen years later, and the orchestra has 121 men and 6
women in full time regular positions--5 tutti strings and a harpist.
There are also four women with probationary contracts.[x] (For updates stats for 35 orchestras in
2005 click here.)
In the many interviews the orchestra gave during the Sabine
Meyer incident, the men expressed views about uniformity identical to
those of the Vienna Philharmonic. For
example, some claimed that it is impossible for women to really play in
unison with men, because they have different bodies.
In spite of such interesting beliefs, there have been relatively
few studies of the status of women in orchestras, and the most
comprehensive is being conducted by J. Richard Hackman at Harvard (Dept.
of Psychology), and Jutta Allmendinger at the University of Munich (Institute
fuer Soziologie) in a program known as the "Symphony Orchestra
Project". The main goal
of their work has been to study how women influence the perceptions of
work atmosphere within orchestras.
They found that both men and women reported greater job
satisfaction in work settings that were male-dominated rather than mixed.
As the few "token" female colleagues were joined by
additional women, the perceived work atmosphere deteriorated for
everyone--both men and women alike. This
occurs because the increasing representation of women in the orchestra
allows them to become a significant subgroup, share their experiences with
each other, and function as a political force.
Men recognize that their control over status and organization is
threatened, and the perceived work atmosphere declines.
This trend was reversed and there was movement back to harmony only
when the proportion of women reached about 40% of the orchestra.
Hackman and Allmendinger conclude:
"The traditional dictum, 'the more the
better' as it applies to women entering traditionally male organizations
is too simple. Our findings
from symphony orchestras suggest that the problems encountered during the
early stages of gender integration are unlikely to be resolved by simply
increasing the proportion of women beyond token levels."[xi]
This is confirmed by observations of the Berlin Philharmonic.
The few women in the orchestra speak quite positively about their
experiences. But as the
tokenism ends problems will be coming.
And if the researchers are correct, even after gender parity is
reached, measures in certain areas such as "Integrity of the
Orchestra" and "Job Involvement", may still not improve to
the levels found in male-dominated orchestras.[xii]
One factor affecting the perceived "integrity" or
uniformity of the ensemble, and the personal involvement of the musicians
in their job, is the sexuality of subjugation, which plays a large role in
the authoritarian structure of orchestras.
A former administrator of the German State Radio, Clytus Gottwald,
has commented on the conductor-musician relationship:
"The entire musical practice is oriented
to the musician allowing his own subjugation to the will of the conductor
to be celebrated before the public."[xiii]
The musicians, male and female alike, are reduced to the relative equality of powerlessness, and yet traditional gender culture asserts that women are to be subjugated by men, especially in public. Since men do not want to be as equally powerless as women, the master-servant roles become confused and orchestral uniformity and discipline are disturbed. Traditionally, with women present, men do not want to be subjugated, they want to subjugate.
Psychological studies demonstrate that people in authoritarian situations desire very clear directives, and a strong sense of authority. If it is lacking they develop anxiety.[xiv] By causing other dynamics, such as sexual attraction, and confusion about who should dominate whom, the presence of women confuses the patterns of uniform authority, and becomes a scapegoat. These trends result because subjugation is genderized, and the consequences seem to remain the same for most authoritarian institutions, from international orchestras, to the recent judicially enforced entry of women into the Virginia Military Institute.
The problems of gender bias also exist in U.S. orchestras, where
orchestral traditions stand in stark contrast to national gender culture.
This has created a strong social dynamic in the orchestral world.
Five major U.S. orchestras have current or recently settled gender
related lawsuits: Philadelphia, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Chicago, and
The case involving the Philadelphia Orchestra specifically
illustrates how the mechanisms of genderized subjugation disrupt male
uniformity and hierarchical authority within a section.
In February, 1995, Kathleen A. Vigilante, a second bassoonist who
had performed with the Philadelphia Orchestra since 1988, filed a
sexual-harassment lawsuit. The
legal documents state that Mark Gigliotti, the orchestra´s associate
principal bassoonist, displayed "bizarre and unnerving conduct"
that "took on menacing and sexual overtones", and that the
orchestra knew of the situation but did nothing to stop it.
The suit claimed that Gigliotti's conduct included touching her
after she specifically requested that he stop this activity, verbal abuse,
and harassment. It also
asserted that he tried to undercut her professional standing when angry
with her rebuffs.[xv]
A second suit was filed by Vigilante's lawyer in May 1995, alleging
that orchestra management had retaliated against her for filing the first
lawsuit. The two lawsuits were subsequently consolidated, and were
settled out of court in 1996. Under
the terms of the settlement, she resigned from the orchestra and received
an undisclosed cash sum. A
joint statement released by Vigilante and the orchestra said that while
Vigilante: "will miss the camaraderie of many of her fellow orchestra
members, both she and orchestra management are pleased that a settlement
was reached which avoided any further disruption of orchestra members'
concentration on playing the best music in the world."
The patterns of destroyed uniformity are evident.
The woman was perceived as a hindrance to "concentration"
and a "disruption", because the genderized dynamic of
subjugation within the section destroyed the ability of the colleagues to
work together. In this case
the conflict was between an associate principle and a section player.
If the allegations are true, the subjugation followed a continuum
beyond hierarchical professional obligations, and became personal.
The lawsuit alleged that Gigliotti physically restrained Dr.
Vigilante in a parking lot, and that he mentioned keeping a gun in his
The relationship between hierarchical orchestral subjugation and
genderized subjugation could hardly assume starker or more potentially
violent outlines. We would like to assume that there is a clear line separating
threats and physical intimidation from the subordination required by a
conductor or section leader, but as in many areas of life, the lines are
not as clear as we would like them to be.
Because of its particular traditions of authoritarianism and
misogyny, there can be disturbing tendencies when institutionalized and
genderized subjugation meet within the orchestra.
This case also demonstrates what happens to women in orchestras who
confront harassment, and who receive no support from the administration.
The Philadelphia Orchestra essentially admitted guilt by the award,
but due to the intimate way musicians must work together, it would have
been unbearable for Ms.Vigilante to stay in the orchestra.
It would appear that the orchestra is not interested in creating an
atmosphere that enables men and women to work together, but rather in
removing women if they meet with problems.
This would allow the maintenance of a uniform male hierarchy and
When women attain positions in major orchestras, it is because
their work is fundamental to their identity as human beings, and it is
difficult to estimate the pain caused by taking away their careers.
The orchestra had the responsibility to act before the situation
evolved to the proportions it did. They
damaged their reputation, and lost one of the world´s few women
bassoonists in a top orchestra.
In cases of sexual harassment power and subjugation are ends in
themselves. Neither sexual
attraction nor art are the issues. It
would also be obvious this was not rejected love.
If a man cares for a woman, he would not restrain her in parking
lots, he would not demean her professional standing in a section, and he
would not drive her from a world class job that is fundamental to her
identity as a human being. No act of caring could possibly produce these results.
Such actions are a form of violence, and result from misogyny.
The goal and satisfaction of the perpetrator in sexual harassment
is to demean another human being. That
U.S.-Americans have even a Supreme Court Justice who was involved in
rather egregious sexual harassment, is an indication of how oblivious
western culture is to the abuse, sadism, and subjugation inherent in this
form of violence. It is also
an indication of why victims sometimes feel they cannot turn to the courts
Astoundingly, less than three months later further conflicts arose
because the Philadelphia Orchestra management hired a new financial
officer, Michael McDonough, who had left the Boston Symphony after
accusations of sexual harassment by six Boston Symphony staff members.
Lawyers from the Boston firm of Foley, Hoag & Eliot were hired
after BSO board president Nicholas T. Zervas called for an investigation.
They made a set of recommendations, and McDonough resigned shortly
thereafter for "personal reasons". But inspite of
this he was hired by the Philadelphia Orchestra.
The matter soon reached the Philadelphia press and caused another
In March, the Pew Charitable Trusts, a long-time backer of the
Philadelphia Orchestra, denied a request for an 18-month $750,000
operating grant, citing concerns over the way the orchestra was dealing
with its accumulated deficit. The
Philadelphia Inquirer cited
reports that the sum Vigilante received was over $100,000.
This is actually a very small sum for giving up a stellar career
that paid about that much salary in just one year.
The cost in human terms was much higher.
Under the agreement Vigilante is also not allowed to speak about
the incident. The woman has
been removed and silenced, and the Philadelphia gentry can return to
celebrating an internationally superior uniform hierarchy of musical
masculinity. Through the
allegations in this case, we see a vivid and disturbing illustration of
the strong and potentially violent tendancies to abuse that result from
the historic correlations between orchestral and genderized subjugation.
Before Wolfgang Sawallish became GMD of the Philadelphia Orchestra
he held the same position at the Bavarian State Opera in Munich, where
discriminatory views can be more openly expressed.
For example, Hans Pizka, the opera´s first horn, has rigorously
defended the Vienna Philharmonic´s gender discrimination on both the
Orchestra-list and International Horn Society-list of the internet.
He elaborates on the importance of uniformity:
"Again a word about the Vienna
Philharmonic: the same educational, musical, and ethical background,
together with the same male feeling created this unique body of music, or
is there any doubt? An all
women orchestra with all having the same educational, musical, and ethical
background will sound fantastically harmonic also, no doubt, but how about
all the intrigues? Men used
to have intrigues also, but seem to handle them easier."[xviii]
We see again the perceived importance of "the same male
feeling" which creates a "unique body of music".
Mr. Pizka attributes the lack of uniformity caused by gender
integration to physical and psychological differences between men and
"And be fair to me, isn't the general
spectrum of feelings (psychic sensations, enthusiasm, sadness, etc.)
different between man and woman? Isn't
the same the case between nationals and no-nationals [sic]?
It is, believe me. And
because of this particular uniformity, the Vienna Philharmonic has this
very particular sound and expression and success and success as the best
selling recording orchestra. This
is the success secret of the Vienna Philharmonic."[xix]
He did not explain what these "psychic sensations" in
that "unique body of music" might be, and some people disagreed,
stating that musicians can maintain uniformity by adapting to any style.
Here is one woman´s response from the orchestra-list:
"Finally, as it has already been pointed
out, any professional musician worth his/her salt can and will adapt to
whatever style of playing is required.
Please do not insult either me or my colleagues by saying that we
are unable to do this because of some mysterious hormonal or ethnic
Mr. Pizka eventually conceded that since women are allowed
educations, they could play in mixed orchestras. But
he still insisted that the Vienna Philharmonic should exclude women and
foreigners, because their world superiority is created through male and
ethnic uniformity. The
"mysterious hormonal or
ethnic factor" remains a "success secret" outsiders cannot
These views of ethnicity and gender were an important part of 19th
century aesthetics, and led to a national and historic approach to art,
that created a new function for the orchestra as the arbiters of a
national identity through music. The
ultimate expression of this development was probably Bayreuth, which can
be likened to a temple for the celebration of national myths and rituals.
The form and structure of today´s orchestra is locked in 19th
century aesthetics, and is still influenced by these concepts.
Since orchestras represent national culture, ethnic uniformity is
Special problems arise, however, when orchestras go to the extreme,
and ask people to accept "racist and sexist irritations", such
as were expressed in the interview cited above.
Our negative reaction is increased because the 19th century
concepts of the revelatory power of music and its "mystical"
relationship to "The Nation" were abused by the National
Socialists. Here is a typical
example of their fanatic, nationalistic romanticism, taken from a speech
Hitler gave while laying the cornerstone of a museum:
"Art is an exalted mission requiring
fanaticism. He who is chosen
by providence, to reveal the soul of a People around him, to let it sound
in tones or speak in stone, suffers under the power of the All Mighty, as
a force ruling him, and will speak his language, even if the people do not
understand or do not want to understand, and he would prefer to take every
affliction upon himself, than even once be untrue to the star, that guides
The patriarchy is evident. Music
is "divine providence", coming from the "All Mighty",
to "reveal the soul of a People".
The ideology that a particular musical expression or style is
from the central European soul, the People, or the Nation, eventually
had catastrophic effects for central European culture. It manifested itself in the concepts of
Ahnenerbe (the belief that culture is genetically inherited), and
the Blut und Boden ideologies
advocating the racial superiority of "The People" in the Third
An obvious implication of these ideologies is that the most
authentic performance of western classical music can
be created by the ethnic group or nation of the composer.
This was advocated by the Kampfbund
der deutsche Kuenstler (Fighting Group for German Artists) during the
"Since we do not value, that a watered
down internationalism is identified with German artistic genius, we must
require, that in the future German art is represented abroad only by
German artists, that carry in their person and their attitude of mind the
seal of the purest Germaness."[xxii]
Excessive nationalism and ethnocentricity are often constellated
with sexism, and is one more aspect of the chauvinistic mind set and its
invidious attachment to groups. These
problems have hardly left us. Bosnia
illustrates the brutal power European patriarchal ethnicity still has, and
how for women it translated into mass rape.
But today most people have returned to more rational and humane
definitions of national music styles, and are dismayed when asked to
accept "racist irritations".
But if the Vienna, Czech, and Berlin Philharmonics are any
indication, "sexist irritations" might be a different matter.
historical context for U.S. orchestras is different.
They do not have a 19th century heritage, and they evolved in a
multi-racial society. But
there are certain influences that seem to be carried over.
The major U.S. orchestras are also used as national symbols; they
have a notable lack of certain minorities and women; and their patrons are
predominantly the white gentry who expect certain national, ethnic, and
masculine characteristics in the concerts they attend.
In spite of this, North American social forces have increased equal employment opportunities for women and other minorities in orchestras.[xxiii] ICSOM, the union-related organization that serves players in major orchestras, worked to establish new audition procedures. Now, all positions are publicly advertised; the musicians audition behind a screen; and the General Music Director´s right to intervene in the auditioning process has been constrained. The result has been an increase in the number of women in orchestras.
An interesting example of how the removal of visual criteria, and
restraints on the GMD, can help establish equal opportunity is found in
the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. Charles
Dutoit fired Margaret Morse, the associate principle oboe.
She auditioned again
a screen and won her position a second time.
Dutoit was reported to be "sore".
In many European countries the situation is somewhat different.
In Germany and Austria, for example, the candidates are generally
required to include a photograph of themselves with the application, and
can only audition upon invitation. Until
recently, they were also required to submit a handwritten application, and
the handwriting was sometimes analyzed.
Many orchestras still refuse to use screened auditions, especially
in the final round, since they feel it is important to know what the
musician looks like when he or she plays.
The scope of the visual criteria is very undefined.
Since the top conductors work internationally, correlations are
found between their views and the patriarchy of these international
orchestras. For example,
Lorin Maazel, a frequent guest of the Vienna Philharmonic, has openly
defended their categorical exclusion of women.
In an interview in the widely read German magazine
Bunte, he was asked why there are only men in the Vienna
"Because it is a guild like the
Only the sons or male students of the musicians were allowed to
enter. It is, therefore, the
only orchestra in the world that has held on to its own style for over 150
years. The members decide who
directs each new years concert. In
1996 I will do this for the ninth time."[xxiv]
orchestra maintains its style and uniformity through the continuity of a
male hierarchy that passes on special knowledge that women cannot know.
For Mr. Maazel the tradition is something sons can maintain, but
Across the Atlantic, the Pittsburgh Symphony is facing a sexual
harassment and sexual discrimination lawsuit that evolved under Maazel´s
tenure as GMD. Trombonist
Rebecca Bower has been assigned to perform primarily second trombone even
though she won and is tenured to play the co-principal position.
These decisions were made by Lorin Maazel.
The gender ideologies of top orchestras appear to follow
international patterns, determined by common traditions and the
cross-national interaction of the participants.
Yet another example of a GMD´s patriarchal conflict with a woman
musician was illustrated by Monique Buzzarte in the February 1996 IAWM Journal. She
recounts the experiences of trombonist Abbie Conant in the Munich
Philharmonic under the Rumanian conductor Sergiu Celibidache, who demoted
her with the declaration: "You know the problem, we need a man for
the principle trombone." It was again a question of uniformity and subjugation.
Conant´s strong protest caused an international scandal, and in
the Munich Philharmonic´s Febuary/March 1992 edition of the
Blaetter, tutti cellist and former orchestra chairman, Joerg
Eggebrecht, denied that GMD Celibidache is a sexist.
His remarks reveal patterns found in other international
"Sergiu Celibidache is an extraordinary
European, so impressive, because in him an unobstructed masculine aura is
projected that is not corruptible. And the world is in great need of this,
because we live in a fatherless society, a world without standards in that
point. And there he is, such
a man, who does not allow himself to be corrupted and quite openly
expresses especially during concerts‑‑, what is happening
inside him, and that is naturally a deeply moving vision.
Listeners and performers can still experience music with him as a
The images of the "father", the "unobstructed
masculine aura", and "revelations" are the essence of
orchestral patriarchy. The
fear of chaos, the fear of a world without the uniformity of
"standards", and the fears of contamination as found in the
"corruptible" confirm again our observations.
They speak of "revelations", and of deeply moving visions
as a sort of magic. We see
the male soul as a carrier of secrets.
In a commentary about critics during an interview in Munich´s
Mr. Celibidache referred to the gender identity of music in colorful
"These people who daily poison everything,
should take a pause or write about gynecology.
In that area everyone has a little experience. But in music they are virgins.
So they will remain, and so they will go into the other world,
never fertilized by a single truly experienced tone."[xxv]
the purity is poisoned, and the "virgins" are unable to be
fertilized by the arcane and secret rituals of music.
This seems to be in the same vein as the conductor Hans von Buelow,
who described the conductor-orchestra relationship with the term
How will women conductors and musicians enter the orchestra, if we
maintain these patriarchal images, endlessly repeated by the recording
industry, of the conductor saving the "fatherless society" with
"revelations", and fertilizing the "virgins" with
"truly experienced tones" in the act of "orchestral
coitus"? Will something
of our artistic heritage be lost?
Do we want to maintain these images?
Suffice it to say that not all conductors or orchestras follow
these patriarchal patterns so clearly.
The Munich Philharmonic´s GMD prior to Celibidache, Rudolf Kempe,
brought the first women into the orchestra, and demoted a recalcitrant
male trombonist for continually harassing one of them, the trumpeter
Janice Marshelle Coffman. (After
one year she left to take a position in Stockholm.)
Leonard Slatkin has also openly supported women musicians, even
writing public letters on their behalf.
Until last year he was the GMD of the St. Louis Symphony, and in a
recent case of sexual harassment in that orchestra, the man was removed,
not the woman as in Philadelphia under Sawallish.
These examples give us an overview of how extensive the problems of
gender integration in orchestras are, and how they manifest themselves.
Allmendinger and Hackman found several effects when women become a
significant minority in orchestras (i.e. 10 to 40%): tightened identity
group boundaries for both genders; increased cross-group stereotyping and
conflict; less social support across gender boundaries; and heightened
personal tension for everyone. But
they make an interesting observation about the intimidation of women in
orchestras, and how institutions can seek a frictionless work atmosphere
at the expense of creative growth:
"It is no doubt true that, in
male-dominated organizations, neither the organization nor its members are
obtaining the benefits (such as personal learning and improved task
performance) that compositional diversity [gender integration] can bring.
Indeed, our qualitative data suggest that many women find that
there are strong incentives for them to keep a low profile, to behave
closely in accord with existing orchestral norms, and generally to be as
non-intrusive as they can. This
stance is costly to the orchestra because it protects majority members
from exposure to unfamiliar perspectives and from the need to scrutinize
and reconsider traditional behavioral norms."[xxvii]
the arts this might imply a tendency to achieve social harmony at the
expense of creativity, a trade off for which orchestras and their patrons
We could summarize these conservative tendencies of international
orchestras with the following five factors. 1) They believe that music has
qualities defined by gender and ethnicity, and that the uniformity of
these factors produces aesthetic superiority.
2) Traditional values
about the sexuality of subjugation and women disturb the uniform dynamic
of authority in the orchestra´s hierarchical atmosphere.
3) The gender bias is
constellated with chauvinistic overtones of national and ethnic
The attitudes toward women are affected by the cross-national
interaction of the conductors and musicians.
5) Patrons expect a masculine and ethnic character to orchestral
The observation of gender and ethnicity in orchestras opens dark
corridors in western music. How
can we resolve the conflicts of gender bias, and yet preserve the worthy
achievements of our patriarchal artistic heritage?
Is western music the universal grammar that we think it is, or does
each gender and European country experience and create classical music in
significantly different ways?
What exactly is it in an orchestra that would be destroyed by the
presence of women?
do these orchestras have such a phobia of female fertility, and how is
this represented in the literature of music?
If much music literature is misogynist, as some feminists claim,
would not the most authentic performance be by misogynists? Why have Austrian women not protested against the Vienna
Philharmonic? Is the solution
to gender conflict separate but equal orchestras?
Oscar Wilde has said, "Life imitates art far more than art
imitates life." Since we create our identity through art, what effect does
the hierarchical and genderized subjugation characteristic of orchestras
have on our social percepts? How
can we better define the disturbing tendency to abuse that evolves in the
historic correlations between orchestral and genderized subjugation?
Why does the recording industry maintain the patriarchal image of
conductors and orchestras? What role should music schools have in deconstructing the
gender bias of our orchestras?
It is clear that women often bear the brunt of abuse in music, and
for the sake of our humanity we must find answers to these questions, and
many more. Power and public
subjugation, threats, the whipping and slashing of the phallic baton, and
the orgiastic build to climax under the watchful and absolute authority of
the conductor are part of what patrons expect from orchestras, and these
expectations seem to contain vicarious satisfactions of sadism.
Indeed, world-class musicians like Kathleen Vigilante and Rebecca
Bower, among others, have experienced "the incentive to keep a
"low profile", and to be as "non-intrusive" as
possible. The problems of
abuse in music, and the identity of women, are personified in their
stories. Why do
sadomasochistic tendencies seem to be an inherent part of western music?
Are these tendencies essential to our self-expression, or is art
just an excuse?
There are many areas of management and research where work could be
done to improve the status of women in international orchestras.
Orchestras should periodically
review their administrative policies concerning discrimination and
sexual harassment, because clear definitions of unacceptable behavior, and
appropriately enforced sanctions,
reduce the incidence of conflicts. Careful
consideration should be given before purchasing recordings of national
orchestras that categorically exclude women, because those orchestras
might be significantly demeaning the human right to self-expression.
Music schools should offer adequate gender in music curriculum to
prepare students for a world that is rapidly transforming.
Gender in music scholars should consider that social reality adds
legitimacy to their work, and deflects the nihilistic tendencies of some
post-modern criticism. Additional
research and documentation should be completed about gender exclusive
orchestras to see if they really
are justifiable. More
research should be done about the history and concepts of sadism and abuse
in western music, because it would bring reason and clarity to a great
deal of what women musicians confront.
The professional organizations for women should be structured to
include performers, and not just composers, because many women performers
have no where else to turn.
These approaches will help end gender bias in orchestras, but we might eventually discover that integration will not be the relevant issue, because composers in the near future might restructure the patriarchal nature of music, and patrons might reject orchestras as instruments by and for the privileged classes. Male and ethnic uniformity would no longer be the inherent aesthetic or social value. Gender integration would thus not be a question, because the orchestra would evolve out of existence, or transform unrecognizably.
It is certain that we are witnessing an historical movement that
will continue. Women
musicians are assuming positions of leadership, and are creating a
wide-reaching cultural metamorphosis.
By returning the feminine to humanity, they are giving society a
new identity, and a deeper understanding of human consciousness that is
profoundly transforming the world of music.
[i]"Out of the Typing Pool, Into Career Limbo," Business Week, April 15, 1996.
[ii]Allmendinger, J. & Hackman, J.R., "The More, the Better?," unpublished working paper (Harvard Business School, January 1994) pg. 11. See also: "The More, the Better? A Four Nation Study of the Inclusion of Women in Symphony Orchestras," Social Forces, December 1995, 74(2):423-460, University of North Carolina.
[iii]"Wie so geh´nie so," Broadcast by West Deutscher Rundfunk, February 13, 1996.
[iv]During internet discussions about the VPO, I among others, mentioned that the orchestra uses string instruments all made by one instrument maker. This is completely untrue. I researched the matter and found that they use string instruments made by many different makers.
[v]For information about the genderized perceptions of musical instruments in Germany from 1750 to 1850 see, Hoffmann, Freia. Instrument und Koerper: die musizierende Frau in der Buergerlichen Kultur. (Frankfurt, Insel Verlag, 1991).
[vi]"Orchestra Credits 1st Woman", Associated Press News Group, April 4, 1995.
[vii]The letter to Vienna Philharmonic was written by Jeanice Brooks, and they addressed their response to her.
[viii]I enquired with the Vienna Philharmonic press office to find out how many women composers the orchestra had performed in the last five years. They had not performed any.
[ix]Rieger, Eva. Frau, Musik, & Maenner Herrschaft. (Kassel, Germany: Furore Verlag, 1988) pg. 222.
[x]I obtained this information in an interview with a former member of the orchestra.
[xi]Allmendinger & Hackman, 1994, pg. 28.
[xii]Their study did not include female-dominated orchestras, but it would be interesting to see if the results are similar.
[xiii]Rieger, pg. 226
[xiv]Piperek, Maximilian. Stress und Kunst. Gesundheitliche, psychische, soziologische und rechtliche Belastungsfaktoren im Beruf des Musikers eines Symphonieorchesters. (Vienna, 1971). See also Rieger, pg 226.
[xv]"Philadelphia Orchestra and Bassoonist Settle", Philadelphia Inquirer, February 22, 1996.
[xvi]For a sustained and profound discussion of sexual harassment and equality before the law see, MacKinnon, Catharine A., Only Words. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).
[xvii]"Philadelphia Orchestra: Another Harassment Mess", DOS Orchestra, No. 56, May 24, 1996.
[xviii]Pizka, Hans. International Horn Society-list, October 23, 1995. One should note that Mr. Pizka´s statements about women in orchestras are often much harsher and more explicit than those I have quoted here. It is also interesting that in this quote he adds "ethical" uniformity as something important for orchestras. Based on other comments I have heard, I believe this to be uniform religious affiliation.
[xx]Knowles, Leslie. Orchestra-list, January 29, 1996.
[xxi]"Kulturrede beim Reichsparteitag 1933 in Nuernberg", Baustein zum National-theater, I/3, December 1933, pg. 67.
[xxii]"Deutsches Operngastspiel in Suedamerika", Deutsche Buehnenkorrespondenz, II/31, October 1933, pg. 4.
[xxiii]For additional discussion see, Edwards, J.M., "Transformation and the American orchestra: Women and gender issues," unpublished paper presented at a conference on women and gender, London. July 1991.
[xxiv]"Mr. Neujahr", Bunte, December 23, 1994, pg. 73.
[xxv]Reissinger, "Vorletzter Akt im Celibidache‑Drama?" Abendzeitung Muenchen, November 14, 1984, p.7.
[xxvi]Rieger, pg. 230.
[xxvii]Allmendinger & Hackman, 1994, pg. 29.